3.4.7 Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways do not need to be modeled for calculation of tax deductions.

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however for Phase I of this rules and procedures manual, a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"].4

[table title="Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways" id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"]5

Mode Elevators Escalators and Moving Walkways
Power (W) Annual Hours Power (W) Annual Hours
Active 10,000 300 4,671 4,380
Ready 500 7,365 n.a. 0
Standby 250 1,095 n.a. 0
Off 0 0 0 4,380
Typical Annual Energy Use 7,000 kWh/y 20,500 kWh/y
Elevator/Escalator Power
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.
Units W/unit
Input Restrictions The power values from [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
Elevator/Escalator Schedule
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.
Units Data structure: schedule, state
Input Restrictions The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.
90.1-2007

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however for Phase I of this rules and procedures manual, a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"].4

[table title="Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways" id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"]5

Mode Elevators Escalators and Moving Walkways
Power (W) Annual Hours Power (W) Annual Hours
Active 10,000 300 4,671 4,380
Ready 500 7,365 n.a. 0
Standby 250 1,095 n.a. 0
Off 0 0 0 4,380
Typical Annual Energy Use 7,000 kWh/y 20,500 kWh/y
Elevator/Escalator Power
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.
Units W/unit
Input Restrictions The power values from [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
Elevator/Escalator Schedule
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.
Units Data structure: schedule, state
Input Restrictions The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.
90.1-2010

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however for Phase I of this rules and procedures manual, a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in Table 6.4.7-1.4

Table 6.4.7-1; Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways5

Mode Elevators Escalators and Moving Walkways
Power (W) Annual Hours Power (W) Annual Hours
Active 10,000 300 4,671 4,380
Ready 500 7,365 n.a. 0
Standby 250 1,095 n.a. 0
Off 0 0 0 4,380
Typical Annual Energy Use 7,000 kWh/y 20,500 kWh/y
Elevator/Escalator Power
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.
Units W/unit
Input Restrictions The power values from Table 6.4.7-1 for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
Elevator/Escalator Schedule
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.
Units Data structure: schedule, state
Input Restrictions The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in Table 6.4.7-1 (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.
Baseline Rules Same as the proposed design
  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.
90.1-2016 BM

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in Table 3.4.7-1.4

Table 3.4.7-1; Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways5

Mode

Elevators

Escalators and Moving Walkways

Power (W)

Annual Hours

Power (W)

Annual Hours

Active

10,000

300

4,671

4,380

Ready

500

7,365

n.a.

0

Standby

250

1,095

n.a.

0

Off

0

0

0

4,380

7,000 kWh/y

20,500 kWh/y

Elevator/Escalator Power

Applicability

All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways

Definition

The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.

Units

W/unit

Input Restrictions

The power values from Table 3.4.7-1 for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.

Baseline Rules

Same as the proposed design

<Elevator/Escalator Schedule

Applicability

All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways

Definition

The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.

Units

Data structure: schedule, state

Input Restrictions

The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in Table 3.4.7-1 (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.

Baseline Rules

Same as the proposed design

Elevator Ventilation Efficiency

Applicability

Elevator cabs

Definition

Mechanical ventilation to move are through the elevator cab

Units

W/cfm

Input Restrictions

As designed

Baseline Rules

Ventilation shall be modeled at 0.33 W/cfm and shall operate continuously when the elevator is in active or ready mode.

 

Elevator Lighting

Applicability

Elevator cabs

Definition

The power used to illuminate the elevator cab.

Units

W/ft²

Input Restrictions

As designed

Baseline Rules

Lighting power shall be modeled at 3.14 W/ft² and operated continuously when the elevtor is in active or ready mode.

 

  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.
Building EQ

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however for Phase I of this rules and procedures manual, a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"].4

[table title="Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways" id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"]5

Mode Elevators Escalators and Moving Walkways
Power (W) Annual Hours Power (W) Annual Hours
Active 10,000 300 4,671 4,380
Ready 500 7,365 n.a. 0
Standby 250 1,095 n.a. 0
Off 0 0 0 4,380
Typical Annual Energy Use 7,000 kWh/y 20,500 kWh/y
Elevator/Escalator Power
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.
Units W/unit
Input Restrictions The power values from [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.
Elevator/Escalator Schedule
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.
Units Data structure: schedule, state
Input Restrictions The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.
  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.
Energy Star

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways account for 3% to 5% of electric energy use in buildings.1 Buildings up to about five to seven stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost. Mid-rise buildings commonly use traction elevators with geared motors, while high-rise buildings typically use gearless systems where the motor directly drives the sheave. The energy using components include the motors and controls as well as the lighting and ventilation systems for the cabs.

Elevators are custom designed for each building. In this respect they are less like products than they are engineered systems, e.g. they are more akin to chilled water plants where the engineer chooses a chiller, a tower, pumping and other components which are field engineered into a system. The main design criteria are safety and service. Some manufacturers have focused on energy efficiency of late and introduced technologies such as advanced controls that optimize the position of cars for minimum travel and regeneration motors that become generators when a loaded car descends or an empty car rises. These technologies can result in 35% to 40% savings.2

The motors and energy using equipment is typically located within the building envelope so it produces heat that must be removed by ventilation or by air conditioning systems. In energy models, a dedicated thermal zone (elevator shaft) will typically be created and this space can be indirectly cooled (from adjacent spaces) or positively cooled.

Little information is known on how to model elevators. As engineered systems, the model would need information on the number of starts per day, the number of floors, motor and drive characteristics, and other factors. Some work has been done to develop and categorize energy models for elevators3 however for Phase I of this rules and procedures manual, a simple procedure is recommended based on a count of the number of elevators, escalators and moving walkways in the building. This data is shown in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"].4

[table title="Unit Energy Consumption Data for Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways" id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"]5

Mode Elevators Escalators and Moving Walkways
Power (W) Annual Hours Power (W) Annual Hours
Active 10,000 300 4,671 4,380
Ready 500 7,365 n.a. 0
Standby 250 1,095 n.a. 0
Off 0 0 0 4,380
Typical Annual Energy Use 7,000 kWh/y 20,500 kWh/y
Elevator/Escalator Power
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The power for elevators, escalators and moving walkways for different modes of operation. Elevators typically operate in three modes: active (when the car is moving passengers), ready (when the lighting and ventilation systems are active but the car is not moving), and standby (when the lights and ventilation systems are off). Escalators and moving walkways are either active or turned off.
Units W/unit
Input Restrictions The power values from [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] for different modes of operation are prescribed for the proposed design.
Elevator/Escalator Schedule
Applicability All buildings that have commercial elevators, escalator, or moving walkways
Definition The schedule of operation for elevators, escalators, and moving walkways. This is used to convert elevator/escalator power to energy use.
Units Data structure: schedule, state
Input Restrictions The schedule specified for the building should match the operation patterns of the building. The total number of hours for each mode of operation should match the values in [bookref id="unit-energy-consumption-data-for-elevators-,-escalators-and-moving-walkways"] (the default) unless documentation is provided to demonstrate that other schedules are appropriate.
  • 1. Sachs, Harvey M., Opportunities for Elevator Energy Efficiency Improvements, American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, April 2005
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Al-Sharif, Lutfi, Richard Peters and Rory Smith, Elevator Energy Simulation Model, Elevator World, November 2005, Volume LII, No11
  • 4. TIAX, Commercial and Residential Sector Miscellaneous Electricity consumption: Y20005 and Projections to 2030, Final Report to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and Decision Analysis Corporation (DAC), September 22, 2006, Reference Number D0366.
  • 5. The TIAX report does not give energy consumption data for moving walkways. For the purposes of this manual, it is assumed to be equal to escalators.